Home

Neanderthal Sex

Leave a comment

Ancient human bone helps date our first sex with Neanderthals

Oldest genome sequence of a modern human suggests Homo sapiens first bred with Neanderthals 50,000-60,000 years ago

Neanderthal DNA specialist Svante Pääbo examines the anatomically modern human femur, found near Ust’-Ishim in western Siberia. Photograph: Bence Viola/MPI EVA

An ancient leg bone found by chance on the bank of a Siberian river has helped scientists work out when early humans interbred with our extinct cousins, the Neanderthals.

A local ivory carver spotted the bone sticking out of sediments while fossil hunting in 2008 along the Irtysh river near the settlement of Ust’-Ishim in western Siberia. The bone was later identified as a human femur, but researchers have learned little else about the remains until now.

The importance of the find became clear when a team led by Svante Pääbo and Janet Kelso at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig ran a series of tests on the fragile material.

Radiocarbon dating of pieces of the leg bone put the remains at around 45,000 years old. The team went on to extract DNA from the bone, which allowed them to reconstruct the oldest modern human genome ever.

The genetic material showed that the thigh bone belonged to a man who carried about 2% Neanderthal DNA, a similar amount to people from Europe and Asia today. The presence of Neanderthal DNA meant that interbreeding between them and modern humans must have taken place at least 45,000 years ago.

But amid the DNA were more clues to when humans and Neanderthals reproduced. Strands of Neanderthal DNA found in modern humans can act like a biological clock, because they are fragmented more and more with each generation since interbreeding happened. The strands of Neanderthal DNA in the Siberian man were on average three times longer than those seen in people alive today. Working backwards, the scientists calculate that Neanderthals contributed to the man’s genetic ancestry somewhere between 7,000 and 13,000 years before he lived.

The findings, published in the journal Nature, suggest that humans and Neanderthals had reproductive sex around 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, though other couplings might well have happened later. Until now, estimates for interbreeding have varied enormously, ranging from 37,000 to 86,000 years ago.

“What we think may be the case is that the ancestors of the Ust’-Ishim man met and interbred with Neanderthals during the initial early admixture event that is shared by all non-Africans at between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, and perhaps somewhere in the middle East,” Kelso told the Guardian.

But a small number of fragments of Neanderthal DNA in the man’s genome were longer than expected given how many generations had passed. Those might be evidence of his ancestors breeding with Neanderthals closer to the time he was born.

“Everyone outside Africa has about same amount of Neanderthal DNA. It seems to be something early on where one really mixed with Neanderthals in a serious way,” said Pääbo. “Since that happened I wouldn’t be surprised if, now and again, one did it here and there later on too.”

Prior to the latest study, the oldest modern human genome came from the 24,000-year-old remains of a boy buried at Mal’ta near Lake Baikal in easterbn Siberia.

Chris Stringer, head of human origins at the Natural History Museum in London, said the ancient DNA from the Siberian man sheds fresh light on the story of early human migrations out of Africa. In the 1920s and 30s, researchers found 100,000-year-old skeletons of modern humans in caves in Israel. The remains may have belonged to a group of humans that left Africa and ultimately went on to colonise southern Asia, Australia and New Guinea. But an alternative explanation is that they were from a migration that failed to go much further. According to that view, the more successful dispersal of humans out of Africa happened much later, around 60,000 years ago.

The latest findings suggest that the ancestors of modern Australians, who carry a similar amount of Neanderthal DNA to Europeans and Asians, are unlikely to have picked up their own Neanderthal DNA before 60,000 years ago. “The ancestors of Australasians must have been part of a late, rather than early, dispersal through Neanderthal territory,” Stringer said.

“While it is still possible that modern humans did traverse southern Asia before 60,000 years ago, those groups could not have made a significant contribution to the surviving modern populations outside of Africa, which contain evidence of interbreeding with Neanderthals,” he added.

Source: TheGuardian

WW2 U-boat found with ship it sank off North Carolina

Leave a comment

U-576 was lost with 45 members of its crew

The wrecks of a German U-boat and a merchant vessel it sank in the Battle of the Atlantic have been found 30 miles (48 km) off North Carolina.

Researchers led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration found U-576 within 240 yds (220 m) of the US freighter Bluefields after 70 years.

It is a “rare window into a historic military battle”, the NOAA said.

The two ships met on 15 July 1942 when the German submarine attacked a convoy of merchant ships en route to Florida.

The U-576 sank the Bluefields and seriously damaged two other ships.

A US Navy Kingfisher aircraft in turn bombed the German vessel at the same time as it was attacked by the merchant vessel Unicoi.

Bluefields and U-576 were lost within minutes, the NOAA’s account of the battle says.

“Most people associate the Battle of the Atlantic with the cold, icy waters of the North Atlantic but few people realise how close the war actually came to America’s shores,” said David Alberg, superintendent of the NOAA’s Monitor National Marine Sanctuary.

“As we learn more about the underwater battlefield, Bluefields and U-576 will provide additional insight into a relatively little-known chapter in American history.”

Bluefields did not suffer any casualties during the sinking but 45 crew members were lost on U-576.

Germany’s foreign ministry appealed for the wreck site to be treated as a war grave to “allow the dead to rest in peace”.

Source: BBCNews

Why Vinyl Sounds Better Than Digital

Leave a comment

Originally posted on lionaroundwriting:

IMG_0461

   IF YOU COLLECT vinyl or are old enough to simply have vinyl, you’ll probably agree that the sound of a record is different from that on a tape, CD or digital file like MP3 or wav. Digital music lacks richness, something only analogue can deliver which I guess explains why many music listeners still stick to the record player. It isn’t even about the sound system you have. A record that isn’t scratched will sound fuller and more pleasant on the ears regardless of device it is played on compared to digital.

What happened to the sound? Modern mass produced music all sounds the same – and there’s a reason for this. The production methods used by producers and the labels result in a loss of range in the music piece once it is finalised and fully edited.analog vs digital

Due to the format, vinyl has a greater range in volumes…

View original 228 more words

Sex ‘emerged in ancient Scottish lake’

3 Comments

Artist’s impression: The researchers believe the fish had to be side-by-side to copulate

Scientists believe they have discovered the origin of copulation.

An international team of researchers says a fish called Microbrachius dicki is the first-known animal to stop reproducing by spawning and instead mate by having sex.

The primitive bony fish, which was about 8cm long, lived in ancient lakes about 385 million years ago in what is now Scotland.

Source: BBCNews Read more

The Edwardian Cloakroom

2 Comments

Giant genitalia exhibited in former Bristol toilets

The Edwardian Cloakroom is a former toilet block that has been turned into a creative space

A former public toilet in Bristol is to be occupied by giant black velvet genitalia in the name of art.

People are invited to have their photo taken with the two sculptures at the Edwardian Cloakroom, which has been turned into a creative space.

These pictures will then be displayed on the surrounding walls.

Artist Claudio Ahlers said he hopes to tour the country with the exhibition – Portraits of Private Perception – which starts on Monday and lasts six days.

Mr Ahlers, together with Tilly May, Virginie Noel and Ellie Gray, will photograph visitors interacting with the 2.2m (7ft) tall sculptures – one in the former ladies’ toilet and one in the men’s.

‘Reflect intimate emotions’

“The exhibition will grow with each contribution from each sitter,” said Montpelier-based Mr Ahlers.

“While being photographed with the sculptures participants will be free to pose, sit and engage with the each sculpture in whatever way they like.

“The resulting photographs should reflect intimate emotions, playful interactions, personal perceptions and most importantly the depth of feelings towards the opposite sex and as well as feelings about one’s own gender.

“It is hoped that the honesty, beauty and intensity of the final photographs will reveal genuine insights into how we as women and as men view ourselves, our sexuality, our bodies as well as the opposite sex and more specifically the ones we fall in love with.

“Whatever is uncovered by each photograph will hopefully go beyond ideas and clichés as embodied by, for example, swear words, derogatory language or sexualised comedy and will instead be explored in the spirit of joy, affection and celebration.”

Each participant, who must be aged over 18, will receive a digital file of their selected photograph for personal use.

Visitors can also choose not to be photographed.

Satireday on Tomus

2 Comments

CanadianWeatherGuide

Awesome

Leave a comment

Japanese Tiger Lily

Japanese Tiger Lily

Reblogged from antilandscaper

Older Entries

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,063 other followers

%d bloggers like this: