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The Argentines who speak Welsh

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Nearly 150 years ago a group of intrepid Welsh settlers headed to Patagonia in South America. Prof E Wyn James of the School of Welsh, Cardiff University, asks what lessons they might offer about migration and integration.

I’ve recently returned from a visit to Patagonia – to the province of Chubut in southern Argentina. Although very memorable and enjoyable, it was also rather surreal.

Indeed, it was a little like visiting a parallel universe. That was not just because I was leaving a Welsh autumn for a Patagonian spring, because Chubut is very different from Wales in so many ways. Yet, in the Chubut Valley, I found myself singing Welsh hymns, eating a Welsh tea, watching Welsh folk dancing, and witnessing the traditional ceremony of the “chairing of the bard” in a cultural festival we in Welsh call an eisteddfod.

The reason for this rather incongruous scenario is that 150 years ago, in 1865, just over 150 Welsh people sailed from Liverpool intent on establishing a Welsh settlement in the Chubut Valley. And although Spanish is now the main community language, there are perhaps as many as 5,000 people in Chubut today who still speak Welsh, and in recent years there has been a significant revival of interest in all things Welsh.

But why was this Welsh outpost established, and why in Patagonia of all places? The main reasons people emigrate are economic, but there are others, especially those linked to the desire for political and religious freedom, which in turn are closely linked to identity.

In the mid-19th Century, a period of political radicalism and growing Welsh national consciousness, most of the population of Wales were Welsh in language and Protestant Nonconformist in religion, all of which contrasted sharply with the ruling classes.

One of the most prominent among the radical Nonconformist leaders in Victorian Wales was Michael D Jones. A man of strong religious and political convictions, he placed much emphasis on the importance of nation and community. In 1848, on a visit to family members who had emigrated to America, he noticed that Welsh immigrants assimilated quite quickly into the English-speaking world around them, gradually losing their language, customs and religion.

Michael D Jones (1822-1898) by Ap Caledfryn

Many immigrants, in all periods, are happy, indeed often anxious, to put the old world behind them and forge a new identity. But for others, as we can see today, this loss of culture and identity can be a matter of great concern.

This loss of Welsh identity was a matter of great concern to Jones, and he began arguing strongly that, if Welsh emigrants were to retain their language and identity, Welsh emigration would have to be channelled to a specific Welsh settlement somewhere remote from English influences, where the Welsh would be the formative, dominant element.

He became the leader of a group of like-minded people, who attempted to realise this objective of a Welsh-speaking, self-governing, democratic and Nonconformist Wales overseas. A number of locations were considered, including Palestine, and Vancouver Island in Canada, but they eventually agreed upon the Chubut Valley in Patagonia – a remote area of South America, with no European settlements, only nomadic indigenous peoples.

Jones didn’t settle there himself – he didn’t really approve of emigration – the better option, in his view, was to stand one’s ground in Wales itself. But he accepted that emigration was a universal phenomenon, and if it was inevitable then he was strongly of the opinion that it should be channelled to create a new Wales overseas.

Despite a very difficult start, by the end of the 19th Century the Welsh settlement in Chubut was experiencing something of a golden age, both economically and culturally. During that period Welsh was the language of education, religion, local government, commerce and cultural life in general, and it looked as if the vision of a new Welsh-speaking Wales overseas would be realised.

The first Welsh settlers landed in 1865 and lived in caves in the cliffs

But with economic success came the seeds of failure. People from other parts of the republic began to move in, the Argentine government began to involve itself increasingly in the life of the settlement, insisting in 1896, for example, that schools changed from being Welsh to being Spanish. Immigration from Wales more or less ceased with World War One, and with no injection of new Welsh-speakers from the old country, and the increasing emphasis by the Argentine Government on assimilation, the Welsh language and its culture went into steep decline in the mid-20th Century – Welsh becoming excluded from public life, and restricted to all intents and purposes to the home and to chapel. Things looked very bleak for the fortunes of the Welsh language in Chubut.

However, celebrations of the centenary of the settlement in 1965 brought increased contact with Wales, and this has grown steadily ever since. There have been changes in government policy, with less emphasis on assimilation and more on cultural diversity, and a new appreciation of the pioneering role played by the Welsh settlers. As a result, recent years have seen a significant revival of interest in Welsh language and culture in Chubut.

Source: BBCNews Read and see more

Dreadnoughtus schrani

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Battleship beast: colossal dinosaur skeleton found in southern Patagonia

Dreadnoughtus schrani unearthed in Argentina is most complete skeleton of plant-eating titanosaur recovered anywhere in world

Artist’s impression of the enormous newly discovered dreadnoughtus schrani. A complete skeleton has been unearthed in southern Patagonia, Argentina. Photograph: Mark A. Klingler/Carnegie Museum of Natural History

The spectacular remains of one of the largest beasts ever to walk the planet have been unearthed by fossil hunters in southern Patagonia.

The unique haul of bones includes a metre-wide neck vertebra, a thigh bone that stands as tall as a man, and ribs the size of planks, representing the most complete skeleton of a colossal plant-eating titanosaur recovered anywhere in the world.

The new species was so enormous that researchers named it Dreadnoughtus schrani after the dreadnought battleships of the early 20th century on the grounds that it would fear nothing that crossed its path.

From measurements of the bones, scientists worked out that Dreadnoughtus weighed nearly 60 tonnes and reached 26 metres from snout to tail, making it the largest land animal for which an accurate body mass can be calculated.

Video here

The colossal dreadnoughts lived around 77m years ago in a temperate forest at the southern tip of South America. Its bodyweight equates to as many as a dozen African elephants or more than seven of the Tyrannosaurs rex species, according to Kenneth Lacorvara, a paleontologist at Drexel University in Philadelphia. Details of the find are published in the journal, Scientific Reports.

Another giant prehistoric animal, Argentinosaurus, was probably of comparable size but its dimensions are known only from a clutch of backbone vertebrae, a shinbone and a handful of other bone fragments. The diplodocus, which lived 80m years earlier than dreadnoughtus, weighed in at a comparatively measly 16 tonnes.

Lacorvara caught a first glimpse of the remains during a field trip to the stunning but barren scrubland of southern Patagonia in 2005. What appeared to be a small collection of bones soon became an extensive haul of more than 100 bone fragments, exquisitely well preserved when the animal apparently drowned in quicksand.

Kenneth Lacovara with the right tibia of dreadnoughtus schrani Kenneth Lacovara Photograph: Kenneth Lacovara

Though staggering in its dimensions, close inspection of the bones revealed that the animal was not fully grown when it died. “That was a real shock to us,” Lacorvara told the Guardian. “When you look at the bones of dreadnoughtus, it’s clear this individual was still growing fast. There are no indications of a cessation of growth.”

It took Lacorvara’s team, working with Argentinian experts, four successive years to excavate the entire skeleton which amounts to more than 45% of the animal’s bones. Only a single tooth and a small fragment of the dinosaur’s jaw were found from the head. The loss of much of the skull is common in fossils of giant plant-eaters, because the skull bones are relatively small and light to enable the dinosaur to lift its head. During the excavation the team unearthed the remnants of a second, smaller titanosaur.

Source: TheGuardian Read and see video and more photos

Babies Unbottled

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Odon childbirth device: Car mechanic uncorks a revolution

 

A “potentially revolutionary” device to help women during difficult births has come from an unlikely source – a car mechanic from Argentina, who based the idea on a party trick.

Apart from having five children of his own, Jorge Odon had no connection with the world of obstetrics. He did however have a talent for invention.

“It comes naturally – for instance if I have a problem in my workplace I will go to bed and my head will think it through and I will wake up in the middle of the night with a solution,” he says.

But until 2005, all his patents – eight in total – were in the field of mechanics, stabilisation bars, car suspensions and the like.

All this changed after Odon’s staff at the garage showed him a YouTube video revealing how to extract a loose cork from inside an empty bottle. It’s remarkably simple. You tilt the bottle, stuff a plastic bag down the neck and blow into the opening. The bag balloons inside the bottle, wrapping itself tightly around the cork. Then you just pull it out.

Odon immediately challenged a friend, Carlos Modena, to a bet over dinner. He placed a bottle containing a cork on the dinner table, and laid out several objects, including a bread bag. Thoroughly puzzled, Modena insisted the only way of getting the cork out would be to smash the bottle. So Odon showed him his trick, and won the bet.

But that night, as he slept next to his wife, Odon had a lightbulb moment – what if he used the same principle to help women give birth? At 04:00 he tried to wake her up. “Marcela, this cork trick could make labour easier!” he said. His wife mumbled, “That’s nice,” turned over and went back to sleep.

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Did the Dinosaurs Shit in the Woods?

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Giant prehistoric toilet unearthed

Each poo is a time capsule to the dawn of the dinosaurs

A gigantic “communal latrine” created at the dawn of the dinosaurs has been unearthed in Argentina.

Thousands of fossilised poos left by rhino-like megaherbivores were found clustered together, scientists say.

The 240-million-year-old site is the “world’s oldest public toilet” and the first evidence that ancient reptiles shared collective dumping grounds.

The dung contains clues to prehistoric diet, disease and vegetation says a study in Scientific Reports.

Elephants, antelopes and horses are among modern animals who defecate in socially agreed hotspots – to mark territory and reduce the spread of parasites.

But their best efforts are dwarfed by the enormous scale of this latrine – which breaks the previous record “oldest toilet” by 220 million years.

Fossil “coprolites” as wide as 40cm and weighing several kilograms were found in seven massive patches across the Chanares Formation in La Rioja province.

Some were sausage-like, others pristine ovals, in colours ranging from whitish grey to dark brown-violet.

“There is no doubt who the culprit was,” said Dr Lucas Fiorelli, of Crilar-Conicet, who discovered the dung heaps.

“Only one species could produce such big lumps – and we found their bones littered everywhere at the site.”

The culprits were dicynodonts – ancient megaherbivores

The perpetrator was Dinodontosaurus, an eight-foot-long megaherbivore similar to modern rhinos.

These animals were dicynodonts – large, mammal-like reptiles common in the Triassic period when the first dinosaurs began to emerge.

The fact they shared latrines suggests they were gregarious, herd animals, who had good reasons to poo strategically, said Dr Fiorelli.

“Firstly, it was important to avoid parasites – ‘you don’t poo where you eat’, as the saying goes.

“But it’s also a warning to predators. If you leave a huge pile, you are saying: ‘Hey! We are a big herd. Watch out!”

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The high road: Argentina to Chile by bus

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Buses are usually just a means of getting from A to B, but the journey across the Andes from Argentina to Chile is a true adventure, showcasing magnificent scenery, rare wildlife and, at times, extreme weather

A llama herd at around 4,000 metres. Photograph: Kevin Rushby

On the upper deck of the trans-Andes bus, the gap-year backpackers from every advanced economy of the globe did not appreciate the danger we were in. Not yet. When I looked back from my seat at the front, I saw that many of them were busy with iPads and iPhones, a few were asleep and the rest were chatting.

No one was watching the digital display that recorded the outside temperature. It had been falling ever since we left behind the last human habitation, in Argentina. Now it was below zero and still dropping. Rolling sheets of ice particles were scouring the road, while the midday sky remained an imperturbable blue.

We had spent several hours winding westwards towards Chile, up into inhospitable realms, passing vast salt lakes presided over by snow-capped peaks and seeing signs of life disappear. Now there were no more vicuña and guanaco, the wild llamas of the Andes, no suri, the giant flightless bird. At 4,800m, even the golden tussock grass had given up and there was nothing, only the jagged peaks rising from a barren plain. The bus lowed, then gave a shudder as an icy blast hit it broadsides.

Crossings are often the best part of any journey, whether it’s over a border or pass, or through straits. Humans have long known that such moments require the greatest concentration, for in those crossings comes the greatest danger – and the greatest pleasure. My favourites have always been mountain passes: the modest Lake District, or the dizzying Rockies or Himalayas.

I was looking forward to my first journey over the Andes, and to this pass, from Purmamarca in Argentina to San Pedro de Atacama in Chile. I was expecting something special from the 10-hour bus ride. But I had not considered that a journey over a barrier like the Andes can take a traveller over subtler barriers too – like the one that separates you from the local culture.

The woman across the aisle let out a howl of frustration: “No signal!” Along the deck, headphones were flung aside, screens tapped, phones raised. The bus kept grinding upwards and the temperature gauge settled for -10C. The sheets of ice had become storms of blinding white. Then, with a lurch, we stopped. Ahead of us a lorry was jammed into a bank of driven ice. There was no way past, and our coach could not reverse or turn around. I saw the driver, or one of his assistants, struggling through the blizzard.

Lorries struggle through icy winds. Photograph: Kevin Rushby

“There’s this girl I know on Facebook,” said someone behind me, “she was stuck for two days and then they went back to Purmamarca.”

This news caused alarm: “They shouldn’t allow the buses to go if it’s dangerous!” “I’ve got a flight to catch.”

I pulled on my boots and jacket, grabbed my camera and set off to the lower deck. On the stairs the transition from tourism to adventure travel was drawing differing responses. A few passengers were embracing the excitement, but most were grim-faced. “The toilet’s blocked.” “I’m cold.” We’d been stopped less than 10 minutes.

Fortunately for me the adventure had started a day earlier and I was already in the mood. Sometimes a trip does that: jumbling any plans and demanding that you leap from tourist to traveller. My plan had read: “Transfer by car from Salta to Purmamarca via the famous tourist attraction of Humahuaca Gorge, then take the bus across the Andes to San Pedro de Atacama in Chile.” That was not exactly what had happened.

I’d driven out of Salta early the previous morning with Edgar, my guide there. We were talking about the astonishing Museum of High Altitude Archaeology in the town square.

“It’s still controversial with some people,” Edgar had said. “They don’t like their ancestors to be disturbed.”

Five centuries ago the Incas, revering the eternal sun and the restless volcanoes, had sacrificed children by leaving them to die on the top of particular mountains.

“It’s not a human sacrifice,” said Edgar. “Don’t call it that.”

Their diminutive corpses were discovered in 1999 – preserved by severe cold and depleted oxygen – and removed to Salta. In the museum the story of how they came to be on a remote, 6,700m mountaintop builds to a remarkable moment of ghastly drama, when you come face to face with one of the children. It is a moving experience, giving a glimpse into ancient times, when people believed that mountains were living beings who made war on each other. In those times the few humans who passed that way came as supplicants, filled with a sense of awe and magic.

“Some people still revere the mountains,” said Edgar. “They wanted those children to be left alone.”

Read more with a link to a great photo album

Read more with a link to a great photo album

Comment:

I have done a similar trip from Calama (Chile) through San Pedro de Atacama up over two passes 4,000+ Susques and down to San Salvador de Jujuy in Argentina.

When it comes to adventure, sometimes perilous adventure, this is hard to beat.

 

 

Inca mummies: Child sacrifice victims fed drugs and alcohol

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Tests on the 13-year-old’s hair revealed she was given large amounts of alcohol

Tests on three mummies found in Argentina have shed new light on the Inca practice of child sacrifice.

Scientists have revealed that drugs and alcohol played a key part in the months and weeks leading up to the children’s deaths.

Tests on one of the children, a teenage girl, suggest that she was heavily sedated just before her demise.

The study is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr Emma Brown, from the department of archaeological sciences at the University of Bradford, said: “The Spanish chroniclers suggest that children were sacrificed for all kinds of reasons: important life milestones in the lives of the Incas, in times of war or natural disasters, but there was a calendar of rituals too.”

Frozen in time

The mummified remains were discovered in 1999, entombed in a shrine near the summit of the 6,739m-high Llullaillaco volcano in Argentina.

Three children were buried there: a 13-year-old girl, and a younger boy and girl, thought to be about four or five years old.

Their remains date to about 500 years ago, during the time of the Inca empire, which dominated South America until the Europeans arrived at the end of the 15th Century.

“The preservation is phenomenal – they’ve been called the best preserved mummies in the world,” explained Dr Brown.

“These three children look like they are asleep.”

The international team of researchers used forensic tests to analyse the chemicals found in the children’s hair.

They discovered that all three had consumed alcohol and coca leaves (from which cocaine is extracted) in the final months of their lives.

Historical records reveal that these substances were reserved for the elite and often used in Incan rituals.

Death from exposure

An analysis of the teenage girl’s hair, which was longer than the hair of the younger victims, revealed more.

The girl, known as the “Llullaillaco maiden”, was probably considered more highly valued than the younger children, because of her virginal status.

Tests on her long braids revealed that her coca consumption increased sharply a year before her death.

The scientists believe this corresponds to the time she was selected for sacrifice. Earlier research also reveals that her diet changed at this point too, from a potato-based peasant diet to one rich in meat and maize.

Dr Brown explained: “From what we know of the Spanish chronicles, particularly attractive or gifted women were chosen. The Incas actually had someone who went out to find these young women and they were taken from their families.”

The results also revealed that the girl ingested large amounts of alcohol in the last few weeks of her life.

It suggests she was heavily sedated before she and the other children were taken to the volcano, placed in their tombs and left to die.

“In the case of the maiden, there is no sign of violence. She is incredibly well looked after: she has a good layer of fat, she has beautifully groomed hair, beautiful clothes,” said Dr Brown.

“In this case we think with the combination of being placed in the grave with the alcohol and the cold – the mountain is over 6,000m above sea level – she would have passed away quietly.”

The mummies are now housed in the Museum of High Altitude Archaeology in Salta, Argentina.

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The Earth is Grumbling

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Argentina and Chile order evacuation of Copahue volcano

Residents living near Copahue were also evacuated last year after the volcano erupted (file picture)

Chile and Argentina have ordered the evacuation of some 3,000 people living near the Copahue volcano in the south of their shared border.

The authorities in both countries issued a red alert – the highest possible – saying the Chilean volcano could erupt imminently.

The 2,965m (nearly 10,000ft) volcano – which sits in the Andes cordillera – has so far only spewed gas.

Thousands of minor earth tremors have been registered in the area.

“This red alert has been issued after monitoring the activity of the volcano and seeing that it has increased seismic activity,” Chilean Interior Minister Andres Chadwick said in a news conference.

“There is a risk that it can start erupting.”

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If nothing else…

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The Pope will have a positive effect on tourism to and in Argentina.

In Pope Francis’s footsteps: a Jesuit tour of Argentina

Córdoba in central Argentina is usually overlooked by tourists heading to the country’s more famous attractions. But that could be about to change, thanks to Pope Francis, whose election has shone a light on the province’s atmospheric Jesuit estancias

Entrance to church in Córdoba’s UNESCO-listed Jesuit block. Photograph: Alamy

“The pope and I once had a fight,” says Nelso, miming fisticuffs with his hands. “But that was 30 years ago. Back when we were young and I had hair!” He slaps his balding head and laughs.

Nelso Lenarduzzi, charismatic and white-whiskered, is the director of the Jesuit Museum in Argentina‘s central province of Córdoba. We’re in the middle of a tour of his exhibition – which includes Jesuit tapestries and relics from long-lost local Indian religions – when he suddenly lets slip on his heated clash with the man now known as Pope Frances.

In the early 1980s, Jorge Bergoglio, then a relatively young priest acting on behalf of his superiors, visited the museum and announced he wanted to take 30 items back to a chapel in Buenos Aires province. Nelso was horrified as the priest listed some of the museum’s most-treasured pieces, including a valuable altar.

“We didn’t actually have a fist fight,” he admits, laughing again at the idea, but strong words were exchanged and Bergoglio would not budge. “Now, at least, I can say I’ve seen him at his toughest and I know he’s no pushover.”

The Vatican’s recent selection has shone a spotlight on Argentina. Yet although Bergoglio’s Argentinian life has been largely dissected – from his football allegiances to his politics – a lot less has been made of his Jesuit connection. For those interested in finding out about the country’s Jesuit history, Córdoba is probably the best place to start. This, after all, is where the order once had a base so powerful it was seen as a serious threat to early Spanish rule.

The province of Córdoba is famed for its warm, dry climate, and green, fertile sierras. At its heart is Argentina’s second city, also called Córdoba and nicknamed La Docta (or the learned one) on account of its large student population. Since 2000, the city has also boasted Unesco world heritage status, thanks to its Jesuit block, which includes a stone church, priests’ residences and one of the oldest universities in South America (1613).

Bergoglio lived within the block for two years in the 1990s and now his bespectacled face gazes back at you all over town: on a celebratory banner outside the church, on a caricaturist’s easel on a tourist-filled pedestrian walkway, and even on the pavement as a street trader sets out papal souvenirs in the late summer sun. Back in the late 16th century, the pope’s predecessors arrived here from Europe and set about spreading their scholarly branch of the Catholic faith. They were so successful and efficient in their work that the Spaniards ultimately withdrew funding, scared that they were forming a state within a state. So, to keep the funds flowing for their evangelistic work, the Jesuits came up with plan B: the working estancia.

Alta Gracia’s Jesuit estancia Photograph: Alamy

Five examples of these estancias still stand, scattered across these central plains. My first stop was Estancia Caroya, surrounded by green fields and orange trees, 44km north of the city. Its design is typical for the era: a colonial-style mansion, built around a courtyard, with arched walkways and its own chapel. The whitewash walls and terracotta roof certainly look attractive against the cloudless blue skies, but aesthetics were not the Jesuits’ main motivation. Estancias were working farms, heavily involved in the mule trade, and each plying its own specialist trade, from wine production to making bayonets.

Only one to two Jesuits would live onsite, with labour from hundreds of African slaves.

“This is something that was not talked about for years,” says Claudio Videla, director of the Caroya estancia. “It was a dark part of history. Slaves were considered sub-human. Even after their sons were freed, the next generation was sent to their deaths when they were put in the front line [in civil and foreign conflict].”

This explains why today’s Argentina has hardly any people of African descent, compared with Brazil or Uruguay.

Jesuits also worked with local indigenous populations, who received a wage (to prevent an uprising) and completed much of their artisan work. Look up to Córdoba’s cathedral, for example, and you see angels’ faces with Indian features, rather than traditional European cherubs.

I made it to three out of the five estancias on the tourist route: Caroya; neighbouring Jesús María (where I find Nesto’s museum); and finally, 35km south-west of Córdoba city, Alta Gracia, which squats at the start of the sierras, amid miles of cornfields.

Visiting the town of Alta Gracia gave me the chance to drop in on one of Argentina’s other famous sons. In the 1940s, the Guevara family moved to the province, hoping the dry air would help cure the asthma of their oldest, Ernesto. The boy, who grew up to be known as Che, is now depicted in a bronze statue on the family home’s front porch. Rooms of the small suburban home have been turned into a mini museum, featuring family photos and various memorabilia, including his last-ever diary entry before he was executed in the Bolivia jungle. Back in the early 2000s, this tiny museum might see about 5,000 visitors a year. Then, one day in 2006, two VIP guests popped in – Fidel Castro and Hugo Chavez. After that much-publicised appearance, annual visitor numbers shot up to 100,000.

A statue of Ernesto “Che” Guevara as a boy at his childhood home in Alta Gracia. Photograph: Alamy

It’s the mix of high-profile visits and Unesco recognition that has given Córdoba’s tourism a real boost in recent years. Once famed only for lomito (steak) sandwiches and fernet (the bitter Italian spirit drunk here as if it were water), the province is now trying to relaunch itself to appeal to the more sophisticated traveller.

 

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Do you have a skeleton in your closet?

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Tyrannosaurus rex also had a pint-sized skinny ancestor Eodromaeus that lived 230 million years ago in Argentina

A dinosaur skeleton, that is…

To be even more specific a Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton.

Apparently they are worth selling.

In 1997 a Tyrannosaurus Rex sold for $8m and this week a Tyrannosaurus bataar was auctioned for $1m. A T-bataar from Asia (in this case Mongolia) is a smaller version of the T-rex.

The Mongolians want it back saying that the export of such artifacts is illegal.

Tyrannosaurus dinosaur skeleton sold amid controversy

Tyrannosaurus Bataar is an Asian cousin of the meat-eating Tyrannosaurus Rex

A row has broken out over the sale of a dinosaur skeleton at auction in the US.

The rare Tyrannosaurus Bataar, seven metres long (23ft), was bought by an anonymous bidder for more than $1m (£630,000) in New York.

The sale went ahead despite protests from the Mongolian president.

Elbegdorj Tsakhia says the skeleton, unearthed in the Gobi Desert, came from Mongolia and that exporting fossils found in the country is illegal.

The auctioneers, Heritage Auctions, say the specimen was imported legally. A restraining court order in the name of Mr Tsakhia was put on the sale.

Tyrannosaurus Bataar is an Asian cousin of the meat-eating Tyrannosaurus Rex.

The skeleton in New York is thought to be one of the most complete and well preserved ever discovered, says the BBC’s Jonathan Blake in Washington.

“When it comes to dinosaurs, number one, dinosaurs in general are extremely rare. But the rarest of the dinosaurs are the carnivores, the meat eaters – the top of the food chain if you will,” David Herskowitz, director of natural history at Heritage Auctions, told APTV.

“And, of all the meat eaters that are out there, the most famous are the Tyrannosaurids. They are the most desirable, but they are the most elusive. They are the most difficult to find. Even though they are so big, there are not that many of them around.”

Found about seven years ago in the Gobi Desert, the T-Bataar remained in storage in England.

The T-bataar was slightly smaller and had longer arms than its cousin, Mr Herskowitz said.

Lawyers for the auction house say the sale did not break any US laws – but it will not be confirmed until it has been approved by a US court.

Source: BBC News

Comment:

But remains the question, should such archaeological remains be sold?

Are they not Earth’s treasures and belong to everybody?

My question is, if it is illegal in Mongolia to export, how can it have been bought ‘legally’?

 

Falklands War: UK and Argentina mark invasion 30 years on

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The candle is lit at the National Arboretum

Services are being held in Britain and Argentina to mark the 30th anniversary of the start of the Falklands War.

A total of 255 British and about 650 Argentine troops died after the UK sent a task force to the islands to combat the Argentine invasion on 2 April 1982.

The anniversary comes amid renewed tension, as Argentina has reasserted its claim to the archipelago.

UK Prime Minister David Cameron suggested the day is used to remember both the Argentine and British dead.

In a statement, Mr Cameron also said that he remains committed to upholding British sovereignty over the islands.

Meanwhile, the Royal Navy has confirmed HMS Dauntless – one of its newest warships – will leave the UK on Wednesday for a six month routine deployment in the South Atlantic.

Britain has controlled the Falklands since 1833 but Argentina claims the territory – which it calls the Malvinas – saying it inherited rights to them from Spain.

Source: BBC News Read more

Comment:

Since my previous posts on the subject of the Falkland Islands sovereignty I have found two very full accounts of the histories involved whereas, my previous sources were somewhat brief and favoured the British.

Debatepedia clearly shows that on 22nd January 1771 Spain and Britain signed an agreement where both nations rights were reserved.

As this agreement existed 45 years before Argentina existed with its Independence in 1816, Argentina had no sole claim over the Falklands being inherited from Spain without accepting they were in effect, co-owned by the British who had not acknowledged any such succession of sovereignty.

The British left the islands in 1774 while leaving a plaque maintaining their political claim.

The Spanish then governed the islands from Buenos Aires (not Argentina) until 1811 when they too abandoned the islands. This was still before Argentina’s Independence.

The British arrived back in 1833 following a series of incidents between Argentina and the USA over fisheries rights in 1831/32. See: U.S. and British Diplomacy in the South Atlantic (2007) Where the Argentine Governor and others were imprisoned by the Americans.

The claim by Argentina that the Falklands were included in the independence is refuted by the fact that none of Spains territories were relinquished in terms of sovereignty until 1836, after the British were already in residence.

Both these articles are worth reading in order to understand the complicated story. More complicated than I had previously been lead to believe.

The crux of the matter is, the Falkland Islands appear to legally be a British Overseas Territory.

In response to this recent altercation of words between Argentina and Britain, I have proposed a solution. While, I am not a diplomat and make no such claims, simply I have suggested a working model that should be explored diplomatically and any government, British or Argentine, ought to be able to respect as a solution by 21st century people.

Is there a Falklands Solution?

Meanwhile, both Argentina and Britain should forget the folly of 1982 and remember the people who were lost on both sides. Because, they, not the politicians, were the honorable ones.

 

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